Lunar: Saros Cycles

Saros Cycle

by Fred Espenak

The periodicity and recurrence of eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). It was known to the Chaldeans as a period when lunar eclipses seem to repeat themselves, but the cycle is applicable to solar eclipses as well.

Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near the north or south polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central1 eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. Odd numbered Saros series occur at the ascending node2 of the Moon’s orbit. They begin with a partial eclipse at high northern latitudes. Even numbered Saros
series occur at the descending node2 of the Moon's orbit and start with a partial eclipse at high southern latitudes.

Detailed information for solar eclipse Saros series 1 to 175 are presented in the following tables. The number of eclipses are listed along with the length (in years) of the series. Next, the dates of the first and last eclipses in the series are given. Finally, the exact sequence of eclipses in the Saros series is tabulated. The number and type of eclipses varies from one Saros seris to the next as reflected in the sequence diversity. The abbreviations used in the sequence are as follows:

                                 P  = Partial Eclipse.
                                 A  = Annular Eclipse.
                                 T  = Total Eclipse.
                                 H  = Hybrid3 Eclipse.

For Saros series 117 through 156 (those series currently in progress), links are provided which local circumstances at greatest eclipse for all eclipses in each series. The Saros series number links to each table of complete details for the corresponding series.

Footnotes:

1. Central solar eclipses are eclipses in which the central axis of the Moon’s shadow strikes the Earth’s surface. All partial (penumbral) eclipses are non-central eclipses since the shadow axis misses Earth. However, umbral eclipses (total, annular and hybrid) may be either central (usually) or non-central (rarely).

2. The Moon’s orbit is inclined about 5 degrees to Earth’s orbit around the Sun. The points where the lunar orbit intersects the plane of Earth’s orbit are known as the nodes. The Moon moves from south to north of Earth’s orbit at the ascending node, and from north to south at the descending node. of the Moon’s shadow strikes the Earth’s surface. All partial (penumbral) eclipses are non-central eclipses since the shadow axis misses Earth. However, umbral eclipses (total, annular and hybrid) may be either central (usually) or non-central (rarely).

3. Hybrid eclipses are also known as annular/total eclipses. Such an eclipse is both total and annular along different sections of its umbral path. For more information, see Five Millennium Catalog of Hybrid Solar Eclipses.

Calendar Dates

The Julian calendar is used for all dates up to 1582 Oct 04. After that date, the Gregorian calendar is used. Due to the Gregorian Calander reform, the day after 1582 Oct 04 (Julian calendar) is 1582 Oct 15 (Gregorian calendar). Note that Great Britian did not adopt the Gregorian calander until 1752. For more information, see Julian and Gregorian Calendars.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0, so the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE. This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. In this catalog, dates are counted using the astronomical numbering system which recognizes the year 0. Historians should note the numerical difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and year -100 corresponds to 101 BCE, etc.. (See: Year Dating Conventions )

There is some historical uncertainty as to which years from 43 BCE to 8 CE were counted as leap years. For the purposes of this catalog, we will assume that all Julian years divisible by 4 will be counted as leap years.

Predictions

Eclipse predictions presented here are based on j=2 ephemerides for the Sun [Newcomb, 1895] and Moon [Brown, 1919, and Eckert, Jones and Clark, 1954]. The value used for the Moon’s secular acceleration is n-dot = -26 arc-sec/cy*cy, as deduced by Morrison and Ward [1975]. The value for delta-T was determined as follows:

  1) pre-1600: delta T was calculated from empirical fits to historical records
  derived by Stephenson (1997)
  2) 1600-present: delta T was obtained from published observations
  3) future: delta-T was extrapolated from current values

Acknowledgments

All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy. Some of the information presented in these tables is based on Fifty Year Canon of Solar Eclipses: 1986 – 2035.

Permission is freely granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by an acknowledgment:
"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, NASA/GSFC"

Eclipse Predictions & WebMaster: Fred Espenak
e-mail: mailto:espenak@gsfc.nasa.gov
Planetary Systems Branch - Code 693
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 USA
Last revised: 2003 May 01 - F. Espenak

Solar Eclipses of Saros 1 to 175

Saros   Number of  Length        First           Last        Eclipse
Series  Eclipses   (Years)      Eclipse         Eclipse      Sequence

   1       72      1280.1    -2872 Jun 04    -1592 Jul 11    9P 39A  5H 12T  7P
   2       73      1298.1    -2861 May 04    -1563 Jun 21    8P 43T 12H  3A  7P
   3       72      1280.1    -2814 Apr 24    -1534 Jun 01    7P  6T  2H 50A  7P
   4       72      1280.1    -2731 May 06    -1451 Jun 13    7P 30A 16H 11T  8P
   5       73      1298.1    -2720 Apr 04    -1422 May 24    7P 44T  4H 11A  7P
   6       73      1298.1    -2691 Mar 16    -1393 May 03    8P  7T  2H 47A  9P
   7       72      1280.1    -2590 Apr 08    -1310 May 16    6P 30A  6H 21T  9P
   8       73      1298.1    -2579 Mar 07    -1281 Apr 26    7P 45T  1H 10A 10P
   9       74      1316.2    -2568 Feb 06    -1252 Apr 04    9P  8T  3H 32A 22P
  10       73      1298.1    -2467 Feb 28    -1169 Apr 18    7P 31A  3H  9T 23P
  11       76      1352.2    -2511 Dec 26    -1158 Mar 18   11P 44T 21P
  12       87      1550.5    -2680 Aug 08    -1129 Feb 25   23P  9T  3H 30A 22P
  13       85      1514.5    -2561 Sep 12    -1046 Mar 09   20P 31A  3H  8T 23P
  14       86      1532.5    -2568 Jul 31    -1035 Feb 06   22P 43T 21P
  15       75      1334.2    -2557 Jul 01    -1223 Sep 08   24P 10T  3H 29A  9P
  16       85      1514.5    -2456 Jul 23    -0941 Jan 18   22P 33A  2H  7T 21P
  17       74      1316.2    -2427 Jul 03    -1111 Sep 01   21P 44T  9P
  18       73      1298.1    -2416 Jun 02    -1118 Jul 21   22P 13T  3H 28A  7P
  19       73      1298.1    -2333 Jun 15    -1035 Aug 01   21P 36A  2H  6T  8P
  20       72      1280.1    -2286 Jun 05    -1006 Jul 13    8P 12A  2H 43T  7P
  21       72      1280.1    -2275 May 05    -0995 Jun 11    8P 26T  4H 28A  6P
  22       72      1280.1    -2192 May 17    -0912 Jun 23    9P 49A  2H  4T  8P
  23       72      1280.1    -2145 May 07    -0865 Jun 15    6P 14A  3H 42T  7P
  24       72      1280.1    -2134 Apr 06    -0854 May 14    8P 15T 16H 26A  7P
  25       72      1280.1    -2051 Apr 19    -0771 May 26    7P 53A  1H  2T  9P
  26       73      1298.1    -2022 Mar 29    -0724 May 17    7P 11A  7H 40T  8P
  27       72      1280.1    -1993 Mar 09    -0713 Apr 16    8P 14T 15H 19A 16P
  28       72      1280.1    -1910 Mar 22    -0630 Apr 28    7P 42A 23P
  29       73      1298.1    -1881 Mar 01    -0583 Apr 19    7P  3A 14H 28T 21P
  30       84      1496.5    -2069 Oct 02    -0572 Mar 18   20P 14T  5H 24A 21P
  31       74      1316.2    -1805 Jan 31    -0489 Mar 31    9P 41A 24P
  32       84      1496.5    -1957 Sep 24    -0460 Mar 10   19P  2A  3H 38T 22P
  33       84      1496.5    -1982 Aug 02    -0485 Jan 17   22P 16T  4H 23A 19P
  34       86      1532.5    -1917 Aug 04    -0384 Feb 09   23P 40A 23P
  35       84      1496.5    -1870 Jul 25    -0373 Jan 09   22P  3A  2H 38T 19P
  36       73      1298.1    -1859 Jun 23    -0561 Aug 11   22P 18T  3H 23A  7P
  37       73      1298.1    -1794 Jun 25    -0496 Aug 12   24P 40A  9P
  38       73      1298.1    -1729 Jun 26    -0431 Aug 14   17P  8A  2H 38T  8P
  39       72      1280.1    -1718 May 26    -0438 Jul 03    9P 32T  3H 22A  6P
  40       72      1280.1    -1653 May 28    -0373 Jul 04   11P 53A  8P
  41       72      1280.1    -1588 May 28    -0308 Jul 05    7P 19A  2H 37T  7P
  42       72      1280.1    -1577 Apr 28    -0297 Jun 05    7P 35T  3H 21A  6P
  43       72      1280.1    -1512 Apr 29    -0232 Jun 05    8P 55A  9P
  44       72      1280.1    -1447 Apr 30    -0167 Jun 07    6P 21A  2H 35T  8P
  45       72      1280.1    -1436 Mar 30    -0156 May 07    7P 36T  3H 18A  8P
  46       72      1280.1    -1371 Apr 01    -0091 May 08    8P 43A 21P
  47       72      1280.1    -1306 Apr 02    -0026 May 10    6P 21A  3H 30T 12P
  48       74      1316.2    -1331 Feb 08    -0015 Apr 09    9P 37T  2H  6A 20P
  49       72      1280.1    -1248 Feb 22     0032 Mar 29    9P 40A 23P
  50       73      1298.1    -1201 Feb 11     0097 Apr 01    8P 22A  3H 18T 22P
  51       85      1514.5    -1407 Sep 02     0108 Feb 29   21P 37T  3H  3A 21P
  52       86      1532.5    -1378 Aug 14     0155 Feb 19   24P 40A 22P
  53       85      1514.5    -1295 Aug 26     0220 Feb 21   21P 22A  4H 16T 22P
  54       74      1316.2    -1284 Jul 25     0032 Sep 23   21P 26T 15H  3A  9P
  55       73      1298.1    -1255 Jul 06     0043 Aug 23   24P 41A  8P
  56       74      1316.2    -1172 Jul 17     0144 Sep 15   21P 13A 15H 15T 10P
  57       73      1298.1    -1161 Jun 17     0137 Aug 04   13P 34T 13H  6A  7P
  58       72      1280.1    -1114 Jun 07     0166 Jul 14   20P 44A  8P
  59       72      1280.1    -1031 Jun 19     0249 Jul 27    9P 23A 16H 16T  8P
  60       72      1280.1    -1020 May 18     0260 Jun 26    8P 40T  4H 14A  6P
  61       71      1262.1    -0973 May 10     0289 Jun 05    8P  3T  1H 52A  7P
  62       71      1262.1    -0890 May 22     0372 Jun 17    7P 25A  5H 27T  7P
  63       72      1280.1    -0879 Apr 20     0401 May 29    7P 42T  2H 14A  7P
  64       71      1262.1    -0832 Apr 11     0430 May 08    8P  4T  2H 46A 11P
  65       71      1262.1    -0749 Apr 24     0513 May 20    6P 27A  4H 25T  9P
  66       73      1298.1    -0756 Mar 12     0542 May 01    8P 43T  1H  3A 18P
  67       73      1298.1    -0727 Feb 20     0571 Apr 10   10P  5T  2H 34A 22P
  68       72      1280.1    -0626 Mar 16     0654 Apr 22    7P 28A  3H 11T 23P
  69       79      1406.3    -0742 Nov 28     0665 Mar 22   15P 43T 21P
  70       84      1496.5    -0821 Sep 05     0676 Feb 19   23P  5T  3H 32A 21P
  71       83      1478.4    -0702 Oct 08     0777 Mar 14   19P 29A  3H  9T 23P
  72       83      1478.4    -0727 Aug 16     0752 Jan 21   22P 43T 18P
  73       73      1298.1    -0716 Jul 16     0582 Sep 03   24P  7T  3H 31A  8P
  74       75      1334.2    -0615 Aug 08     0719 Oct 18   21P 31A  3H  8T 12P
  75       73      1298.1    -0604 Jul 07     0694 Aug 26   21P 44T  8P
  76       72      1280.1    -0575 Jun 18     0705 Jul 25   22P  8T  5H 30A  7P
  77       71      1262.1    -0474 Jul 11     0788 Aug 06   18P 36A  2H  7T  8P
  78       72      1280.1    -0463 Jun 09     0817 Jul 18    8P 10A  2H 45T  7P
  79       71      1262.1    -0434 May 21     0828 Jun 16    8P 11T 16H 30A  6P
  80       71      1262.1    -0333 Jun 13     0929 Jul 09    7P 48A  2H  6T  8P
  81       72      1280.1    -0322 May 12     0958 Jun 19    7P  5A  9H 44T  7P
  82       71      1262.1    -0293 Apr 22     0969 May 19    8P 11T  5H 39A  8P
  83       71      1262.1    -0210 May 05     1052 May 30    7P 51A  1H  2T 10P
  84       72      1280.1    -0181 Apr 14     1099 May 22    7P  1A 11H 43T 10P
  85       72      1280.1    -0170 Mar 14     1110 Apr 20    8P 12T  4H 29A 19P
  86       71      1262.1    -0069 Apr 06     1193 May 02    7P 41A 23P
  87       73      1298.1    -0076 Feb 23     1222 Apr 13    9P  2H 42T 20P
  88       83      1478.4    -0246 Oct 06     1233 Mar 12   20P 13T  4H 26A 20P
  89       73      1298.1     0018 Feb 04     1316 Mar 24   10P 40A 23P
  90       83      1478.4    -0134 Sep 28     1345 Mar 04   20P  2H 40T 21P
  91       75      1334.2    -0159 Aug 06     1175 Oct 16   23P 14T  3H 25A 10P
  92       74      1316.2    -0076 Aug 19     1240 Oct 16   23P 40A 11P
  93       74      1316.2    -0029 Aug 09     1287 Oct 08   20P  3A  1H 40T 10P
  94       72      1280.1    -0018 Jul 09     1262 Aug 16   21P 18T  2H 24A  7P
  95       71      1262.1     0047 Jul 11     1309 Aug 06   22P 41A  8P
  96       72      1280.1     0094 Jul 01     1374 Aug 08   10P 14A  2H 39T  7P
  97       71      1262.1     0123 Jun 11     1385 Jul 08    8P 32T  2H 23A  6P
  98       71      1262.1     0188 Jun 12     1450 Jul 09    9P 54A  8P
  99       72      1280.1     0235 Jun 03     1515 Jul 11    7P 18A  2H 37T  8P
 100       71      1262.1     0264 May 13     1526 Jun 10    7P 34T  2H 21A  7P
 101       71      1262.1     0329 May 15     1591 Jun 21    8P 53A 10P
 102       71      1262.1     0376 May 05     1638 Jun 12    7P 19A  3H 34T  8P
 103       72      1280.1     0387 Apr 04     1667 May 22    8P 34T  3H 13A 14P
 104       70      1244.0     0470 Apr 17     1714 May 13    7P 41A 22P
 105       72      1280.1     0499 Mar 27     1779 May 16    7P 20A  4H 21T 20P
 106       75      1334.2     0456 Jan 23     1790 Apr 14   11P 35T  4H  5A 20P
 107       72      1280.1     0557 Feb 15     1837 Apr 05   10P 40A 22P
 108       76      1352.2     0550 Jan 04     1902 Apr 08   12P 20A  5H 18T 21P
 109       81      1442.4     0416 Sep 07     1859 Feb 03   21P 24T 15H  4A 17P
 110       72      1280.1     0463 Aug 30     1743 Oct 17   23P 39A 10P
 111       79      1406.3     0528 Aug 30     1935 Jan 05   21P 11A 14H 17T 16P
 112       72      1280.1     0539 Jul 31     1819 Sep 19   21P 24T 14H  5A  8P
 113       71      1262.1     0586 Jul 22     1848 Aug 28   23P 40A  8P
 114       72      1280.1     0651 Jul 23     1931 Sep 12   18P 13A 16H 17T  8P
 115       72      1280.1     0662 Jun 21     1942 Aug 12   10P 37T  4H 14A  7P
 116       70      1244.0     0727 Jun 23     1971 Jul 22   10P 53A  7P
 117       71      1262.1     0792 Jun 24     2054 Aug 03    8P 23A  5H 28T  7P
 118       72      1280.1     0803 May 24     2083 Jul 15    8P 40T  2H 15A  7P
 119       71      1262.1     0850 May 15     2112 Jun 24    8P  2T  1H 51A  9P
 120       71      1262.1     0933 May 27     2195 Jul 07    7P 25A  4H 26T  9P
 121       71      1262.1     0944 Apr 25     2206 Jun 07    7P 42T  2H 11A  9P
 122       70      1244.0     0991 Apr 17     2235 May 17    8P  3T  2H 37A 20P
 123       70      1244.0     1074 Apr 29     2318 May 31    6P 27A  3H 14T 20P
 124       73      1298.1     1049 Mar 06     2347 May 11    9P 43T  1H 20P
 125       73      1298.1     1060 Feb 04     2358 Apr 09   12P  4T  2H 34A 21P
 126       72      1280.1     1179 Mar 10     2459 May 03    8P 28A  3H 10T 23P
 127       82      1460.4     0991 Oct 10     2452 Mar 21   20P 42T 20P
 128       73      1298.1     0984 Aug 29     2282 Nov 01   24P  4T  4H 32A  9P
 129       80      1424.3     1103 Oct 03     2528 Feb 21   20P 29A  3H  9T 19P
 130       73      1298.1     1096 Aug 20     2394 Oct 25   21P 43T  9P
 131       71      1262.1     1107 Jul 21     2369 Sep 02   23P  6T  5H 30A  7P
 132       71      1262.1     1208 Aug 13     2470 Sep 25   20P 33A  2H  7T  9P
 133       72      1280.1     1219 Jul 13     2499 Sep 05   12P  6A  1H 46T  7P
 134       71      1262.1     1248 Jun 22     2510 Aug 06   10P  8T 16H 30A  7P
 135       71      1262.1     1331 Jul 05     2593 Aug 17   10P 45A  2H  6T  8P
 136       71      1262.1     1360 Jun 14     2622 Jul 30    8P  6A  6H 44T  7P
 137       70      1244.0     1389 May 25     2633 Jun 28    8P 10T  6H  4A  3H 32A  7P
 138       70      1244.0     1472 Jun 06     2716 Jul 11    7P 50A  1H  3T  9P
 139       71      1262.1     1501 May 17     2763 Jul 03    7P 12H 43T  9P
 140       71      1262.1     1512 Apr 16     2774 Jun 01    8P 11T  4H 32A 16P
 141       70      1244.0     1613 May 19     2857 Jun 13    7P 41A 22P
 142       72      1280.1     1624 Apr 17     2904 Jun 05    7P  1A  1H 43T 20P
 143       72      1280.1     1617 Mar 07     2897 Apr 23   10P 12T  4H 26A 20P
 144       70      1244.0     1736 Apr 11     2980 May 05    8P 39A 23P
 145       77      1370.3     1639 Jan 04     3009 Apr 17   14P  1A  1H 41T 20P
 146       76      1352.2     1541 Sep 19     2893 Dec 29   22P 13T  4H 24A 13P
 147       80      1424.3     1624 Oct 12     3049 Feb 24   21P 40A 19P
 148       75      1334.2     1653 Sep 21     2987 Dec 12   20P  2A  1H 40T 12P
 149       71      1262.1     1664 Aug 21     2926 Sep 28   21P 17T  3H 23A  7P
 150       71      1262.1     1729 Aug 24     2991 Sep 29   22P 40A  9P
 151       72      1280.1     1776 Aug 14     3056 Oct 01   18P  6A  1H 39T  8P
 152       70      1244.0     1805 Jul 26     3049 Aug 20    9P 30T  3H 22A  6P
 153       70      1244.0     1870 Jul 28     3114 Aug 22   13P 49A  8P
 154       71      1262.1     1917 Jul 19     3179 Aug 25    7P 17A  3H 36T  8P
 155       71      1262.1     1928 Jun 17     3190 Jul 24    8P 33T  3H 20A  7P
 156       69      1226.0     2011 Jul 01     3237 Jul 14    8P 52A  9P
 157       70      1244.0     2058 Jun 21     3302 Jul 17    6P 19A  3H 34T  8P
 158       70      1244.0     2069 May 20     3313 Jun 16    7P 35T  2H 16A 10P
 159       70      1244.0     2134 May 23     3378 Jun 17    8P 41A 21P
 160       71      1262.1     2181 May 13     3443 Jun 20    7P 20A  3H 22T 19P
 161       72      1280.1     2174 Apr 01     3454 May 20    9P 35T  3H  5A 20P
 162       70      1244.0     2257 Apr 15     3501 May 10    9P 39A 22P
 163       72      1280.1     2286 Mar 25     3566 May 13    9P 20A  4H 18T 21P
 164       80      1424.3     2098 Oct 24     3523 Mar 10   20P 36T  4H  3A 17P
 165       72      1280.1     2145 Oct 16     3425 Dec 02   22P 39A 11P
 166       78      1388.3     2228 Oct 29     3617 Feb 19   19P 21A  5H 16T 17P
 167       72      1280.1     2203 Sep 06     3483 Oct 24   21P 26T 14H  3A  8P
 168       70      1244.0     2250 Aug 28     3494 Sep 22   23P 40A  7P
 169       71      1262.1     2333 Sep 10     3595 Oct 16   19P 13A 16H 15T  8P
 170       71      1262.1     2344 Aug 09     3606 Sep 15   11P 36T 11H  6A  7P
 171       69      1226.0     2391 Aug 01     3617 Aug 14   14P 48A  7P
 172       70      1244.0     2474 Aug 13     3718 Sep 08    8P 23A 16H 15T  8P
 173       70      1244.0     2485 Jul 12     3729 Aug 08    7P 41T  3H 12A  7P
 174       69      1226.0     2532 Jul 04     3758 Jul 18    8P  1T  2H 50A  8P
 175       70      1244.0     2597 Jul 05     3841 Jul 31    7P 26A  5H 24T  8P

There is a maximum of 87 eclipses in the Saros series 1 to 175
Number of Saros series with 87 eclipses: 1

There is a minimum of 69 eclipses in the Saros series 1 to 175
Number of Saros series with 69 eclipses: 3

Solar Eclipses: 2001 to 2100

During the 21st century CE1, Earth will experience 224 solar eclipses as follows:

                             All Eclipses =   224  = 100.0%

                              Partial (P) =    77  =  34.4%
                              Annular (A) =    72  =  32.1%
                                Total (T) =    68  =  30.4%
                               Hybrid2(H) =     7  =   3.1%


                          Umbral Eclipses =   147  =  65.6%

                                  Central3=   144  =  64.3%
                              Non-Central =     3  =   1.3%
                                One Limit =     5  =   2.2%


                           Number of Years with 2 Eclipses: 82
                           Number of Years with 3 Eclipses: 12
                           Number of Years with 4 Eclipses:  6

The longest and shortest eclipses of the century as well as other eclipse
extrema are listed below.

          Longest  Total  Solar Eclipse:    2009 Jul 22      Duration = 06m39s
         Shortest  Total  Solar Eclipse:    2043 Apr 09      Duration = 00m00s

          Longest Annular Solar Eclipse:    2010 Jan 15      Duration = 11m08s
         Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse:    2014 Apr 29      Duration = 00m00s

          Largest Partial Solar Eclipse:    2051 Apr 11     Magnitude = 0.9846
         Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse:    2098 Oct 24     Magnitude = 0.0040

     4 Saros Series' begin (Year/Saros):   2011/156  2058/157  2069/158  2098/164
     2 Saros Series' end   (Year/Saros):   2054/117  2083/118

Local circumstances at greatest eclipse4 for every event during the century are
presented in the following catalog. For a detailed key and additional
information about the catalog, see: Key to Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Footnotes:

1. The terms BCE and CE are abbreviations for “Before Common Era” and “Common
Era,” respectively. They are the secular equivalents to the BC and AD dating
conventions. (See: Year Dating Conventions )

2. Hybrid eclipses are also known as annular/total eclipses. Such an eclipse is
both total and annular along different sections of its umbral path. For more
information, see Six Millennium Catalog of Hybrid Solar Eclipses.

3. Central solar eclipses are eclipses in which the central axis of the Moon’s
shadow strikes the Earth’s surface. All partial (penumbral) eclipses are
non-central eclipses since the shadow axis misses Earth. However, umbral
eclipses (total, annular and hybrid) may be either central (usually) or
non-central (rarely).

4. Greatest eclipse is defined as the instant when the axis of the Moon’s shadow
passes closest to the Earth’s center. For total eclipses, the instant of
greatest eclipse is virtually identical to the instants of greatest magnitude
and greatest duration. However, for annular eclipses, the instant of greatest
duration may occur at either the time of greatest eclipse or near the sunrise
and sunset points of the eclipse path.

Solar Eclipses: 2001 to 2100
( 2001 CE to 2100 CE )

         Local Circumstances at Greatest Eclipse:   2001 to   2100

               U.T.
             Greatest    Saros        Eclipse              Sun  Path Center
      Date    Eclipse Type #    Gamma   Mag.   Lat.  Long. Alt Width  Dur.
                                                °      °     °  km

  2001 Jun 21  12:04   T  127  -0.570  1.050  11.3S   2.7E  55  200  04m57s
  2001 Dec 14  20:52   A  132   0.409  0.968   0.6N 130.7W  66  126  03m53s
  2002 Jun 10  23:44   A  137   0.199  0.996  34.6N 178.6W  78   13  00m23s
  2002 Dec 04  07:31   T  142  -0.302  1.024  39.5S  59.5E  72   87  02m04s
  2003 May 31  04:08   An 147   0.996  0.938  66.4N  24.7W   3   -   03m37s
  2003 Nov 23  22:49   T  152  -0.964  1.038  72.7S  88.4E  15  495  01m57s
  2004 Apr 19  13:34   P  119  -1.133  0.736  61.6S  44.3E   0
  2004 Oct 14  02:59   P  124   1.035  0.927  61.2N 153.6W   0
  2005 Apr 08  20:36   H  129  -0.347  1.007  10.6S 119.0W  70   27  00m42s
  2005 Oct 03  10:32   A  134   0.330  0.958  12.9N  28.7E  71  162  04m32s
  2006 Mar 29  10:11   T  139   0.384  1.052  23.2N  16.7E  67  183  04m07s
  2006 Sep 22  11:40   A  144  -0.406  0.935  20.7S   9.1W  66  261  07m09s
  2007 Mar 19  02:32   P  149   1.073  0.874  61.0N  55.4E   0
  2007 Sep 11  12:31   P  154  -1.126  0.749  61.0S  90.3W   0
  2008 Feb 07  03:55   A  121  -0.957  0.965  67.6S 150.6W  16  444  02m12s
  2008 Aug 01  10:21   T  126   0.831  1.039  65.6N  72.3E  34  237  02m27s
  2009 Jan 26  07:59   A  131  -0.282  0.928  34.1S  70.2E  73  280  07m54s
  2009 Jul 22  02:35   T  136   0.070  1.080  24.2N 144.1E  86  258  06m39s
  2010 Jan 15  07:06   A  141   0.400  0.919   1.6N  69.3E  66  333  11m08s
  2010 Jul 11  19:34   T  146  -0.679  1.058  19.8S 121.9W  47  259  05m20s
  2011 Jan 04  08:51   P  151   1.063  0.857  64.7N  20.8E   0
  2011 Jun 01  21:16   P  118   1.213  0.601  67.8N  46.8E   0
  2011 Jul 01  08:38   Pb 156  -1.492  0.097  65.2S  28.6E   0
  2011 Nov 25  06:20   P  123  -1.054  0.905  68.6S  82.4W   0
  2012 May 20  23:53   A  128   0.483  0.944  49.1N 176.3E  61  237  05m46s
  2012 Nov 13  22:12   T  133  -0.372  1.050  39.9S 161.3W  68  179  04m02s
  2013 May 10  00:25   A  138  -0.269  0.954   2.2N 175.5E  74  173  06m03s
  2013 Nov 03  12:46   H  143   0.327  1.016   3.5N  11.7W  71   58  01m40s
  2014 Apr 29  06:03   A- 148  -1.000  0.984  70.6S 131.3E   0   -     -
  2014 Oct 23  21:44   P  153   1.091  0.811  71.2N  97.1W   0
  2015 Mar 20  09:46   T  120   0.945  1.045  64.4N   6.6W  18  463  02m47s
  2015 Sep 13  06:54   P  125  -1.100  0.787  72.1S   2.3W   0
  2016 Mar 09  01:57   T  130   0.261  1.045  10.1N 148.8E  75  155  04m09s
  2016 Sep 01  09:07   A  135  -0.333  0.974  10.7S  37.8E  70  100  03m06s
  2017 Feb 26  14:53   A  140  -0.458  0.992  34.7S  31.2W  63   31  00m44s
  2017 Aug 21  18:25   T  145   0.437  1.031  37.0N  87.6W  64  115  02m40s
  2018 Feb 15  20:51   P  150  -1.212  0.599  71.0S   0.7E   0
  2018 Jul 13  03:01   P  117  -1.354  0.337  67.9S 127.5E   0
  2018 Aug 11  09:46   P  155   1.148  0.736  70.4N 174.5E   0
  2019 Jan 06  01:41   P  122   1.142  0.715  67.4N 153.6E   0
  2019 Jul 02  19:23   T  127  -0.646  1.046  17.4S 109.0W  50  201  04m33s
  2019 Dec 26  05:18   A  132   0.413  0.970   1.0N 102.3E  66  118  03m39s
  2020 Jun 21  06:40   Am 137   0.121  0.994  30.5N  79.7E  83   21  00m38s
  2020 Dec 14  16:13   T  142  -0.294  1.025  40.3S  67.9W  73   90  02m10s
  2021 Jun 10  10:42   A  147   0.915  0.943  80.8N  66.8W  23  527  03m51s
  2021 Dec 04  07:33   T  152  -0.953  1.037  76.8S  46.2W  17  419  01m54s
  2022 Apr 30  20:41   P  119  -1.190  0.639  62.1S  71.4W   0
  2022 Oct 25  11:00   P  124   1.070  0.861  61.6N  77.5E   0
  2023 Apr 20  04:17   H  129  -0.395  1.013   9.6S 125.8E  67   49  01m16s
  2023 Oct 14  17:59   A  134   0.375  0.952  11.4N  83.1W  68  187  05m17s
  2024 Apr 08  18:17   T  139   0.343  1.057  25.3N 104.1W  70  197  04m28s
  2024 Oct 02  18:45   A  144  -0.351  0.933  22.0S 114.5W  69  267  07m25
  2025 Mar 29  10:47   P  149   1.041  0.936  61.1N  77.1W   0
  2025 Sep 21  19:42   P  154  -1.065  0.853  60.9S 153.5E   0
  2026 Feb 17  12:12   A  121  -0.974  0.963  64.7S  86.8E  12  616  02m20s
  2026 Aug 12  17:46   T  126   0.898  1.039  65.2N  25.2W  26  294  02m18s
  2027 Feb 06  15:59   A  131  -0.295  0.928  31.3S  48.4W  73  282  07m51s
  2027 Aug 02  10:06   T  136   0.142  1.079  25.5N  33.2E  82  258  06m23s
  2028 Jan 26  15:07   A  141   0.390  0.921   3.0N  51.5W  67  323  10m27s
  2028 Jul 22  02:55   T  146  -0.606  1.056  15.6S 126.8E  53  230  05m10s
  2029 Jan 14  17:12   P  151   1.056  0.871  63.7N 114.2W   0
  2029 Jun 12  04:05   P  118   1.294  0.458  66.8N  66.1W   0
  2029 Jul 11  15:36   P  156  -1.419  0.230  64.3S  85.6W   0
  2029 Dec 05  15:02   P  123  -1.061  0.891  67.5S 135.7E   0
  2030 Jun 01  06:28   A  128   0.562  0.944  56.5N  80.1E  56  250  05m21s
  2030 Nov 25  06:50   T  133  -0.387  1.047  43.6S  71.3E  67  169  03m44s
  2031 May 21  07:15   A  138  -0.197  0.959   8.9N  71.8E  79  152  05m26s
  2031 Nov 14  21:06   H  143   0.308  1.011   0.6S 137.6W  72   38  01m08s
  2032 May 09  13:25   A  148  -0.938  0.996  51.3S   7.0W  20   44  00m22s
  2032 Nov 03  05:33   P  153   1.064  0.855  70.4N 132.7E   0
  2033 Mar 30  18:01   T  120   0.978  1.046  71.3N 155.7W  11  781  02m37s
  2033 Sep 23  13:53   P  125  -1.158  0.689  72.2S 121.2W   0
  2034 Mar 20  10:17   T  130   0.289  1.046  16.1N  22.3E  73  159  04m09s
  2034 Sep 12  16:18   A  135  -0.393  0.974  18.2S  72.5W  67  102  02m58s
  2035 Mar 09  23:04   A  140  -0.437  0.992  29.0S 154.9W  64   31  00m48s
  2035 Sep 02  01:55   T  145   0.373  1.032  29.1N 158.1E  68  116  02m54s
  2036 Feb 27  04:45   P  150  -1.194  0.628  71.6S 131.3W   0
  2036 Jul 23  10:30   P  117  -1.425  0.199  68.9S   3.6E   0
  2036 Aug 21  17:24   P  155   1.083  0.861  71.1N  47.1E   0
  2037 Jan 16  09:47   P  122   1.148  0.705  68.5N  20.9E   0
  2037 Jul 13  02:39   T  127  -0.724  1.041  24.8S 139.1E  43  201  03m58s
  2038 Jan 05  13:45   A  132   0.417  0.973   2.1N  25.4W  65  107  03m18s
  2038 Jul 02  13:31   A  137   0.040  0.991  25.4N  21.8W  88   31  01m00s
  2038 Dec 26  00:58   T  142  -0.288  1.027  40.3S 164.0E  73   95  02m18s
  2039 Jun 21  17:11   A  147   0.831  0.945  78.9N 102.1W  33  365  04m05s
  2039 Dec 15  16:22   T  152  -0.946  1.036  80.8S 172.8E  18  380  01m51s
  2040 May 11  03:41   P  119  -1.253  0.530  62.8S 174.5E   0
  2040 Nov 04  19:07   P  124   1.099  0.807  62.2N  53.2W   0
  2041 Apr 30  11:51   T  129  -0.449  1.019   9.6S  12.3E  63   72  01m51s
  2041 Oct 25  01:35   A  134   0.413  0.947   9.9N 162.9E  66  213  06m07s
  2042 Apr 20  02:16   T  139   0.296  1.061  27.0N 137.4E  73  210  04m51s
  2042 Oct 14  01:59   A  144  -0.303  0.930  23.8S 137.9E  72  273  07m44s
  2043 Apr 09  18:56   T+ 149   1.003  1.041  61.3N 152.0E   0   -     -
  2043 Oct 03  03:00   A- 154  -1.010  0.943  61.0S  35.3E   0   -     -
  2044 Feb 28  20:23   As 121  -0.995  0.960  62.2S  25.7W   4   -   02m27s
  2044 Aug 23  01:15   T  126   0.961  1.036  64.3N 120.4W  15  452  02m04s
  2045 Feb 16  23:54   A  131  -0.312  0.928  28.2S 166.1W  72  281  07m47s
  2045 Aug 12  17:41   T  136   0.211  1.077  25.9N  78.5W  78  256  06m06s
  2046 Feb 05  23:05   A  141   0.377  0.923   4.8N 171.3W  68  310  09m42s
  2046 Aug 02  10:19   T  146  -0.535  1.053  12.8S  15.3E  58  206  04m51s
  2047 Jan 26  01:31   P  151   1.045  0.890  62.9N 111.8E   0
  2047 Jun 23  10:51   P  118   1.376  0.313  65.8N 177.9W   0
  2047 Jul 22  22:34   P  156  -1.348  0.360  63.4S 160.2E   0
  2047 Dec 16  23:48   P  123  -1.066  0.882  66.4S   6.5W   0
  2048 Jun 11  12:57   A  128   0.647  0.944  63.7N  11.4W  49  271  04m58s
  2048 Dec 05  15:34   T  133  -0.397  1.044  46.1S  56.3W  66  160  03m28s
  2049 May 31  13:58   A  138  -0.119  0.963  15.3N  29.7W  83  134  04m45s
  2049 Nov 25  05:32   H  143   0.294  1.006   3.8S  95.4E  73   21  00m38s
  2050 May 20  20:41   H  148  -0.869  1.004  40.1S 123.6W  29   27  00m21s
  2050 Nov 14  13:29   P  153   1.045  0.887  69.5N   1.2E   0
  2051 Apr 11  02:09   P  120   1.017  0.985  71.6N  32.2E   0
  2051 Oct 04  21:00   P  125  -1.209  0.602  72.0S 117.8E   0
  2052 Mar 30  18:30   T  130   0.324  1.047  22.4N 102.4W  71  164  04m08s
  2052 Sep 22  23:37   A  135  -0.448  0.973  25.7S 175.1E  63  106  02m51s
  2053 Mar 20  07:06   A  140  -0.409  0.992  23.0S  83.1E  66   31  00m49s
  2053 Sep 12  09:32   T  145   0.314  1.033  21.5N  41.8E  72  116  03m04s
  2054 Mar 09  12:32   P  150  -1.171  0.667  72.0S  98.1E   0
  2054 Aug 03  18:02   Pe 117  -1.494  0.066  69.8S 121.3W   0
  2054 Sep 02  01:07   P  155   1.022  0.978  71.7N  82.2W   0
  2055 Jan 27  17:52   P  122   1.155  0.693  69.5N 112.2W   0
  2055 Jul 24  09:56   T  127  -0.801  1.036  33.3S  25.9E  37  202  03m17s
  2056 Jan 16  22:15   A  132   0.420  0.976   3.9N 153.4W  65   95  02m52s
  2056 Jul 12  20:20   A  137  -0.042  0.988  19.4N 123.6W  88   43  01m26s
  2057 Jan 05  09:46   T  142  -0.284  1.029  39.2S  35.3E  73  102  02m29s
  2057 Jul 01  23:38   A  147   0.746  0.946  71.5N 176.1W  41  298  04m22s
  2057 Dec 26  01:12   T  152  -0.941  1.035  84.8S  21.8E  19  355  01m50s
  2058 May 22  10:37   P  119  -1.319  0.414  63.5S  61.3E   0
  2058 Jun 21  00:17   Pb 157   1.487  0.126  65.9N   9.9E   0
  2058 Nov 16  03:21   P  124   1.122  0.764  62.9N 174.3E   0
  2059 May 11  19:20   T  129  -0.508  1.024  10.7S 100.3W  59   95  02m23s
  2059 Nov 05  09:16   A  134   0.445  0.942   8.7N  47.2E  64  238  07m00s
  2060 Apr 30  10:08   T  139   0.242  1.066  28.0N  21.0E  76  222  05m15s
  2060 Oct 24  09:22   A  144  -0.263  0.928  25.8S  28.2E  75  281  08m06s
  2061 Apr 20  02:55   T  149   0.958  1.048  64.5N  59.2E  16  559  02m37s
  2061 Oct 13  10:30   A  154  -0.964  0.947  62.1S  54.4W  15  745  03m41s
  2062 Mar 11  04:24   P  121  -1.024  0.932  61.0S 147.0W   0
  2062 Sep 03  08:52   P  126   1.019  0.974  61.3N 150.5E   0
  2063 Feb 28  07:41   A  131  -0.336  0.929  25.2S  77.8E  70  280  07m41s
  2063 Aug 24  01:20   T  136   0.277  1.075  25.5N 168.5E  74  252  05m49s
  2064 Feb 17  06:58   A  141   0.360  0.926   7.0N  69.8E  69  295  08m56s
  2064 Aug 12  17:44   T  146  -0.465  1.049  10.9S  95.9W  62  184  04m28s
  2065 Feb 05  09:50   P  151   1.034  0.911  62.2N  21.9W   0
  2065 Jul 03  17:31   P  118   1.462  0.164  64.8N  72.0E   0
  2065 Aug 02  05:32   P  156  -1.276  0.489  62.7S  46.6E   0
  2065 Dec 27  08:38   P  123  -1.069  0.877  65.4S 149.1W   0
  2066 Jun 22  19:23   A  128   0.733  0.943  70.1N  96.3W  43  308  04m40s
  2066 Dec 17  00:21   T  133  -0.404  1.042  47.4S 175.9E  66  152  03m14s
  2067 Jun 11  20:40   A  138  -0.039  0.967  21.0N 130.1W  88  119  04m05s
  2067 Dec 06  14:01   H  143   0.285  1.001   6.0S  32.3W  74    4  00m08s
  2068 May 31  03:54   T  148  -0.797  1.011  31.0S 123.3E  37   63  01m06s
  2068 Nov 24  21:30   P  153   1.030  0.911  68.5N 131.0W   0
  2069 Apr 21  10:09   P  120   1.062  0.899  71.0N 101.2W   0
  2069 May 20  17:51   Pb 158  -1.485  0.087  68.8S  69.8W   0
  2069 Oct 15  04:17   P  125  -1.252  0.530  71.6S   5.4W   0
  2070 Apr 11  02:34   T  130   0.365  1.047  29.0N 135.1E  68  168  04m04s
  2070 Oct 04  07:06   A  135  -0.495  0.973  32.8S  60.5E  60  110  02m44s
  2071 Mar 31  14:59   A  140  -0.374  0.992  16.7S  36.9W  68   31  00m52s
  2071 Sep 23  17:18   T  145   0.262  1.033  14.2N  76.7W  75  116  03m11s
  2072 Mar 19  20:08   P  150  -1.141  0.719  72.2S  30.2W   0
  2072 Sep 12  08:57   T  155   0.966  1.056  69.8N 102.2E  14  735  03m13s
  2073 Feb 07  01:53   P  122   1.165  0.677  70.5N 115.0E   0
  2073 Aug 03  17:13   T  127  -0.876  1.029  43.2S  89.3W  28  206  02m29s
  2074 Jan 27  06:42   A  132   0.425  0.980   6.6N  78.9E  65   79  02m21s
  2074 Jul 24  03:08   A  137  -0.124  0.984  12.8N 133.8E  83   58  01m57s
  2075 Jan 16  18:33   T  142  -0.280  1.031  37.2S  94.0W  74  110  02m42s
  2075 Jul 13  06:03   A  147   0.659  0.947  63.1N  95.3E  49  262  04m45s
  2076 Jan 06  10:05   T  152  -0.937  1.034  87.2S 173.5W  20  341  01m49s
  2076 Jun 01  17:29   P  119  -1.389  0.290  64.4S  51.1W   0
  2076 Jul 01  06:48   P  157   1.401  0.274  67.0N  98.1W   0
  2076 Nov 26  11:40   P  124   1.140  0.731  63.7N  40.2E   0
  2077 May 22  02:43   T  129  -0.572  1.029  13.1S 148.4E  55  119  02m54s
  2077 Nov 15  17:05   A  134   0.470  0.937   7.8N  70.7W  62  262  07m54s
  2078 May 11  17:54   T  139   0.184  1.070  28.1N  93.7W  79  232  05m40s
  2078 Nov 04  16:53   A  144  -0.229  0.925  27.8S  83.2W  77  288  08m29s
  2079 May 01  10:47   T  149   0.908  1.051  66.2N  46.3W  24  406  02m55s
  2079 Oct 24  18:08   A  154  -0.924  0.948  63.4S 160.5W  22  495  03m39s
  2080 Mar 21  12:17   P  121  -1.058  0.872  60.9S  86.1E   0
  2080 Sep 13  16:35   P  126   1.072  0.873  61.1N  26.0E   0
  2081 Mar 10  15:21   A  131  -0.365  0.930  22.4S  36.6W  68  277  07m36s
  2081 Sep 03  09:05   T  136   0.337  1.072  24.6N  53.7E  70  247  05m33s
  2082 Feb 27  14:44   A  141   0.336  0.930   9.4N  47.0W  70  277  08m12s
  2082 Aug 24  01:13   T  146  -0.401  1.045  10.3S 151.8E  66  163  04m01s
  2083 Feb 16  18:04   P  151   1.017  0.942  61.6N 154.1W   0
  2083 Jul 15  00:11   Pe 118   1.546  0.017  64.0N  37.6W   0
  2083 Aug 13  12:32   P  156  -1.207  0.613  62.1S  67.5W   0
  2084 Jan 07  17:27   P  123  -1.071  0.872  64.4S  68.6E   0
  2084 Jul 03  01:47   A  128   0.821  0.942  75.0N 169.0W  35  377  04m25s
  2084 Dec 27  09:11   T  133  -0.409  1.040  47.3S  47.8E  66  146  03m04s
  2085 Jun 22  03:18   A  138   0.045  0.970  26.1N 131.3E  87  106  03m29s
  2085 Dec 16  22:35   A  143   0.279  0.997   7.2S 160.7W  74   10  00m19s
  2086 Jun 11  11:04   T  148  -0.722  1.017  23.2S  12.5E  44   86  01m48s
  2086 Dec 06  05:36   P  153   1.020  0.927  67.4N  96.3E   0
  2087 May 02  18:02   P  120   1.114  0.801  70.3N 127.6E   0
  2087 Jun 01  01:24   P  158  -1.419  0.214  67.8S 165.4E   0
  2087 Oct 26  11:44   P  125  -1.288  0.470  71.0S 130.5W   0
  2088 Apr 21  10:29   T  130   0.413  1.047  36.0N  15.2E  65  173  03m58s
  2088 Oct 14  14:45   A  135  -0.535  0.973  39.6S  55.9W  57  115  02m38s
  2089 Apr 10  22:41   A  140  -0.332  0.992  10.2S 154.7W  71   30  00m53s
  2089 Oct 04  01:12   T  145   0.217  1.033   7.4N 162.9E  77  115  03m14s
  2090 Mar 31  03:35   P  150  -1.103  0.783  72.1S 156.2W   0
  2090 Sep 23  16:53   T  155   0.916  1.056  60.7N  40.4W  23  463  03m36s
  2091 Feb 18  09:51   P  122   1.178  0.656  71.2N  17.7W   0
  2091 Aug 15  00:31   T  127  -0.949  1.022  55.5S 150.6E  18  236  01m38s
  2092 Feb 07  15:07   A  132   0.432  0.984   9.9N  48.7W  64   62  01m48s
  2092 Aug 03  09:56   A  137  -0.204  0.979   5.6N  30.4E  78   75  02m31s
  2093 Jan 27  03:19   T  142  -0.274  1.034  34.1S 136.5E  74  119  02m58s
  2093 Jul 23  12:29   A  147   0.572  0.946  54.6N   1.4E  55  241  05m11s
  2094 Jan 16  18:56   T  152  -0.933  1.034  84.8S  10.2W  21  330  01m51s
  2094 Jun 13  00:19   P  119  -1.461  0.162  65.3S 163.6W   0
  2094 Jul 12  13:21   P  157   1.315  0.422  68.0N 152.8E   0
  2094 Dec 07  20:02   P  124   1.155  0.705  64.7N  94.9W   0
  2095 Jun 02  10:04   T  129  -0.639  1.033  16.7S  37.2E  50  145  03m18s
  2095 Nov 27  00:59   A  134   0.490  0.933   7.2N 169.9E  61  285  08m47s
  2096 May 22  01:34   T  139   0.120  1.074  27.3N 153.5E  83  241  06m06s
  2096 Nov 15  00:33   A  144  -0.202  0.924  29.7S 163.4E  78  294  08m53s
  2097 May 11  18:31   T  149   0.852  1.054  67.4N 149.5W  31  340  03m10s
  2097 Nov 04  01:58   A  154  -0.893  0.949  65.8S  86.8E  26  411  03m36s
  2098 Apr 01  19:59   P  121  -1.100  0.797  61.0S  37.9W   0
  2098 Sep 25  00:28   P  126   1.118  0.786  61.1N 100.8W   0
  2098 Oct 24  10:33   Pb 164  -1.541  0.004  61.8S  95.5W   0
  2099 Mar 21  22:51   A  131  -0.401  0.932  20.0S 149.0W  66  275  07m32s
  2099 Sep 14  16:54   T  136   0.394  1.068  23.3N  62.7W  67  241  05m18s
  2100 Mar 10  22:25   A  141   0.308  0.934  12.0N 162.4W  72  258  07m29s
  2100 Sep 04  08:46   T  146  -0.339  1.040  10.5S  39.1E  70  142  03m33s